Alan’s Wake: Remedy Ditch PC Version

No. Noooo. Noooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo. No. No. No. “Some games are more suited for the intimacy of the PC, and others are best played from the couch in front of a larger TV screen. We ultimately realised that the most compelling way to experience “Alan Wake” was on the Xbox 360 platform, so we focused on making it an Xbox 360 exclusive. Both Microsoft and Remedy have long histories in PC game development. This decision was about matching this specific game to the right platform.” Sez nasty Mister Microsoft. Nooooooooooo. There’s a trailer beneath the cut, if you wish to mourn for what might have been.

I’m going to console (hah!) myself with the entirely baseless assumption that it’s only going to be a string of glorified quick-time events.


  1. Ian says:

    As I said about 2 nanoseconds ago when Diogo posted this on the Talk-o-Tron:

    Some games are more suited for the intimacy of the PC, and others are best played from the couch in front of a larger TV screen.

    Well I’m glad we got that established.

    • Bowlby says:

      It really is a lame excuse, isn’t it?

    • qrter says:

      That statement really, really made me laugh.

      Instead of saying “we just can’t be bothered anymore”, try and spin it as if you’re doing it for the good of gamers everywhere.

    • Huggster says:

      They port it onto PC a year later when the hype has died down and the XBOX 360 owners do not need to pirate it on their computers, as they have already bought it for xbox.
      Good way to get another sales increase a year on. It also avoids pirating at release probably ( just guessing)

  2. noggin says:


  3. jsutcliffe says:

    Repeating what I just said in the forum, I never wholly believed the PC version really existed in the first place so I can’t say I’m surprised. It’s a shame though, as it’s looking like it’ll be a good game.

    Also, this is bollocks: “Some games are more suited for the intimacy of the PC, and others are best played from the couch in front of a larger TV screen.” — I play games on my PC in front of a big TV all the time. It’s not rocket science these days, with graphics cards having HDMI outputs up the whatsit.

    In fact, I find gaming in front of a monitor to be more intimate, because I don’t have the Mrs. shouting things like “Earth Clam!” or “Seasick!” whenever someone says “Earth-clan” or “C-Sec” in ME2 there.

    (edit: oh dear, a bit of an understanding the point of the quotation fail there in the last sentence.)

  4. pkt-zer0 says:

    Noooooooo surprise here.

  5. Stense says:

    Oh Remedy, you used to be cool.

  6. SmallGods says:

    From the linked article:

    “In july last year Markus Maki, head of development, said that they’re focusing all their efforts on the 360 version, but will be making comments in regards to the PC at a later date. Although it now looks like this is confirmed as an Xbox 360 exclusive.”

    So its not a definite cancel for the PC version then? I mean….there’s still some hope it’ll appear? Right…? Guys…?

    So help me, it better turn up with all the inevitable DLC included FOR FREE, plus a PC graphical overhaul, or I will personally hunt them down with a tractor.

    This smacks of disgruntled dev team forced to abandon it because of time and publisher pressure. Laaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaame.

  7. Skeez187 says:

    And Microsoft’s ritual sacrifice of PC gaming continues.

    • suibhne says:


      What continues to puzzle me is why MS seems so eager to throw PC gaming under the train. Gaming has always been a notable driver of the Windows ecosystem, and Windows accounts for vastly more revenue than MS’s entire entertainment division, much less the XBox 360 in particular: link to

      Either they think they have such a monopolitistic (*cough*) OS that they won’t lose sales even if they ruin PC gaming, or they’re simply incompetent. It’s almost comforting to suspect the former scenario, but I think the latter may be closer to the mark. Witness the decline of MS’s corporate structure and culture: link to

    • Sagan says:

      Since Microsoft is no longer doing anything for Windows gaming, I wish Apple or some company from the Linux community like Canonical would take this chance to bring more games to their platforms.
      I bet a lot of people (including me) would finally switch away from Windows, if there was just one good game exclusive to either Mac OS or Linux. For example if Apple got Sega games like Bayonetta, Valkyria Chronicles or the Yakuza series on Mac OS, and would maybe support Wine to get most Windows games to run, too, I think they could get the market leadership among hardcore gamers. From my personal experience, they already have a more than 50% market share among students, and that is a pretty large part of hardcore gamers, right?

    • Skeez187 says:

      Why would they do this to PC gaming? Some facts. Wall of text incoming…

      Microsoft took on some of the head staff responsible for Dreamcast when making the Xbox. Why? because Dreamcast was the closest thing to the vision of what MS wanted in a console i.e. true multiplayer and other PC-centric features.

      Xbox was made as a test, and the 360 was the full realization of their dream. MS can make much more off of the 360 than it can from Windows as they have already saturated the OS market and have entire corporations (banks, hospitals, governments) depending on their OS, email, and server applications for proper day-to-day operation. All they can really do with Windows is maintain the status quo, hence their lack of innovation as far as their applications go.

      Remember the Xbox stands for Direct-X Box, essentially a nicely packaged (and well marketed) living room PC gaming system. Therefore their biggest enemy isn’t other consoles, but the PC its trying to emulate. This is why, as a friend at a major development studio has told me, MS actually subsidizes PC devs for them to lead their IPs on the 360 and that subsidy can come with a price as Remedy has become to quintessential example of.

      The PC gaming community has become but a data mine for MS. Everything that is popular or has worked on the PC has and will be implemented into the Xbox line of products. Multiplayer, check. Voice chat, check. Digital distribution, check. Blockbuster FPS games, check (many devs having a pc origin). Retro games, check. The list goes on, if you look at the previous list the difference between PC and the Xbox, is where a lot of those features are free with the PC; MS makes money off of each of those features for Xbox. Xbox headsets, wireless adapters, hard drives, Live subscriptions, Live Arcade downloads, and DLC.

    • ZIGS says:

      I’ve been saying this all along, Microsoft’s wet dream is to get all PC gamers to drop PC gaming and start xbox gaming.

    • TeeJay says:

      “…All they can really do with Windows is maintain the status quo, hence their lack of innovation as far as their applications go…”

      I thought they wanted to provide something to underpin a “networked home” where almost every single electronic and electrical device in a building was connected together and you would have “intelligent fridges” that would know when you ran out of milk and order more from the supermarket, intelligent power which would turn all your lights off if you were not in the room and on-demand hi-fi and TV in every room controllable by a personal handheld device.

      Unless I have missed something, Windows is currently not a reliable under-pinning for something like this, so there is still plenty of potential for innovation.

      Of course this is at the “high” end – the flip side is that a large part of the world’s population is just starting to get low-end computers (and unlike western markets they have got mobile phones and internet cafes first) and you can’t just assume that these new markets will simply use (and buy) same kind of Windows

  8. Premium User Badge

    john_silence says:

    B… B… Boycott! Ah, it doesn’t apply, well – uprising then! Take arms! Shake your flat keyboards and 5600-dpi mice at the sky! Let us burn down Remedy’s tranquil headquarters with the fury of our overheating graphics cards! Microsoft shall suffer the wrath of the PC’s as we massively flock to the Macint… No, not that either, but we’re mighty pissed and disappointed.
    Perhaps they’ll change their mind about this in due time, as many companies have done with so-called “exclusives”.

  9. robrob says:

    I thought this had already happened. I lost interest when it became a Windows whatever-version-I-don’t-have exclusive so it is not particularly disappointing to hear it won’t be coming to the PC, I wouldn’t have had chance to play it either way.

  10. klasjlkjklfjakl says:

    This is bullshit…

  11. vader says:

    I must be doing something wrong when I have my PC connected to my projector in the living room.

  12. Spod says:

    Well I’m not going to begrudge them a business decision. I expect it looked like it simply wasn’t worthwhile investing in the PC development for the game. That bullshit excuse does irk me somewhat though, the PC is ideal for psychological horror type shenanigans. Personally speaking I find it *much* easier to get really involved in a game on the PC than on a console, playing on a TV always feels that much more detached.

  13. JKjoker says:

    its good i stopped caring about this game like 3 years ago, does it even have a release date ? because its pretty much vaporware

  14. Flimgoblin says:

    Wait, did they just say we get a little too intimate with our PCs?

  15. skizelo says:

    Does (did) anybody care about Alan Wake? This sounds like sour grapes, I know, but seriously, I thought it had already been released and I just missed it.
    Humbug on the PC snub though. Bunch of rotters.

  16. Tyrmot says:

    What a lot of rubbish. They could at least have the good grace to be honest. Piracy? Dev costs?

    ‘intimacy of the PC’ = WTF?

  17. Heliocentric says:

    I heard wibbles to this effect literally years ago. Maybe i’ll play it in the future when a 360 emulator pops up… On a pc, on my sofa.

  18. Premium User Badge

    john_silence says:

    @SmallGods: absolutely! Some hope left/but they’d better make it right/disgruntled developers.
    @jsutcliffe: the PC version was most definitely not vaporware, it used to be a poster child for DirectX10, as well as innovative physics and lighting techniques. I even remember reading an article about their pretty avant-garde plans regarding quad-core processors, at a time when dual-core were still more or less the future.
    I do believe Microsoft is to blame for the PC cancellation, and the real reason is that they’ve been working on this for too long and need to ship something and sell it well. And if they do, I wouldn’t be surprised to see a PC version crop up – say, about the same time as Red Dead Redemption?

  19. Frankle says:

    Wouldn’t suprise me if the next news we hear about Remedy is that they are going bankrupt.
    seems to happen to a lot of companies that concentrate on consoles over pc now.
    could be coincidence but I don’t think it is.

  20. 1nightstand says:

    Sure… nothing is more suited to the living room than (what suppose to be) a psychological, horror-survivor shooter… played in the basement, it could cause severe heart failures- we wouldn’t want that to happen, would we…

  21. AlexW says:

    Even though I haven’t been paying that much attention to the game, I stumbled a bit when the ‘intimacy’ point came up.

    It’s a horror game, yes? You’re supposed to become immersed in the game world so they can better mess with your head? I would define that as the kind of area where intimacy is a good thing.

  22. kyrieee says:

    I don’t object to their motivation because it’s an artistic one, but I don’t believe them. The reason it’s not on PC probably has more to do with money (as in piracy, 360 sales having a higher margin, 360 exclusives help the platform and makes money indirectly in the long term).

    Then there’s the fact that Microsoft seem to be doing everything in their power to kill PC gaming

  23. duel says:

    there was me thinking that Alan Wake would be perfect for the PC platform, what with its lush sprawling environment and quad core optimisation, and the fact that its coming from microsoft..

    I am not pleased >:(

  24. James G says:

    Must admit, never been hugely fond of the ‘infront of the TV’ thing. Possibly partly a result of having gone down the personal computer route (C64, Spectrum, Amiga, PC) with only occasional dips into the consoles. Also, for most my game playing I’ve not had even consoles connected up to the main tele, out of consideration for family members/flatmates, who’d rather watch TV than me play. As a result, even my console gaming has tended to be done in a similar manner to PC play. But as others have pointed out, theres nothing to stop you hooking up a PC to a TV, hell, technically mine is, even if I have it set up at a desk.

    That said, Alan Wake isn’t something I’d be hugely keen on anyway. However I wouldn’t be surprised if we see this change six months after 360 release. Seems to be the way of these things. Can’t offhand think of any 360 exclusives that I’m overly bothered about. The PS3 (and PS2) have a few things I wouldn’t mind trying, and I can see myself picking up the latter before the end of the year, and the former when I decide to get a Blu-Ray player.

    • Soobe says:

      Quick aside–

      I have a projector in the living room that I’ll often use for PC gaming, and I gotta say, a good projector has this way of making games *far* more immersive than my 22″ monitor.

      Most of it has to do with the projector, even a 1080p one, smoothing out the rough edges of the picture. Not so much jagged edges mind you, but just the overall presentation. Everything looks more…natural. PC monitors, with few exceptions (Crysis for example), have this way of making things look more cartoonish and vibrant. It’s not a bad picture by any means, it’s just that they present so much detail that they start revealing flaws as well.

      And of course you have the sheer size, anything under 60 inches is pointless, and so long as you have a free white wall you’ll end up with this mammoth 110′ screen. In other words, even a 55″ TV just don’t cut it because the experience, while certainly bigger than a monitor, just isn’t there yet. It’s not until you get into the 85+ inch area that things take a turn onto the Holy Shitsville exit.

      My favorite example is Batman AA. I’d play for several hours on the Projector and of course, be loving it. I would then switch over to the monitor and…well…now it felt like now I was playing a game instead of experiencing one. It was always like that, and always as pronounced.

      Back on topic–

      That said, yes Wake would have been cool at 100″ inches on the living room wall, but I lost interest after playing Resident Evil 5, then looking at the video of Wake and seeing basically the same thing. Nothankyou.

  25. Taillefer says:

    In the dark, on your own, is the wrong way to experience an atmospheric horror game. Of course.

  26. mandrill says:

    Yet more proof that M$ hates PC gamers. An open platform that can be programmed for by just about anyone without having to pay M$ huge license fees? Of course they hate us. They’ve proven it time and again by foisting GFWL on us and making windows less stable than a psychopath on PCP. They suck, but they know that we’re stuck with them cos no-one releases triple A titles on any other OS.

    They’d much rather everyone migrated tot their nicely ecapsulated and controlled Xbox platfor where they take a cut from every ounce of money spent on it, not only from us at the retail end but from the developers in license fees and other extortions.

  27. Shalrath says:

    “We ultimately realised that the most compelling way to experience “Alan Wake” was on the Xbox 360 platform”

    Help me out here, but ~two feet from my monitor vs. six~ feet from my TV – the _TV_ is more intimate? How exactly? Is it because I can sit with seven people at once?

    I think he was grasping for a word and picked the wrong one.

    • D says:

      No, he did said “the PC is more intimate.” But then in a genius marketing stroke, failed to explain how that makes it more compelling on the console. I’m guessing he was just insulting PC’s mom.

  28. int says:

    Just like Schafer with Brutal Legend, they have decided that their games don’t belong on a PC.

    Hoping for a paltry port in some years…

  29. XM says:

    When will game devs look at the real world.

    1. There are a lot of PC players that love to sit on the couch with the PC hooked up to HDTVs
    2. When has a game been made to fit where a player is sat.
    3. This is a lame excuse as they just what to win the battle over PS3 sales.
    4. Luckily the PC has far too many good games to play and I gave up on Alain Wake as it was another DN:Forever.

    • Monchberter says:

      Agreed. Some PC games do work quite well with a pad and sat on the sofa, they look tons better too. :P

  30. TOM WESTFALL says:

    Kind of dumb talk if you ask me.

  31. Vadermath says:

    “Long history in PC development” my arse, Microsoft! If at one point in your pathetic existence you had something to do with helping make the PC better, you stopped riding on that train ages ago. You’ve been nothing but a filthy, dirty saboteur in our midst ever since.

    I’ve been waiting for this game for such a long time, and then this happens. One can always hope that it’ll go the Force Unleashed way, I suppose

  32. Colthor says:

    Microsoft in “not publishing game on PC” shocker.

  33. el Chi says:

    “It’s not you, it’s me.”

  34. AbyssUK says:

    Wait.. why does my PC have an HDMI connector..oh yes for my big television screen… stupid stupid Microsoft.. I even have a 360 controller for my PC for when i don’t play decent games that require a mouse :P

  35. Flowerpot Wang says:

    Noooooooooo…. *looks at his Xbox 360 on the floor next to his PC*

    oh wait

  36. Radiant says:

    Roughly translated this means “we need more money to finish this never ending game I haven’t seen my wife in five months I think I have two kids Microsoft have money right?”

  37. Surgeon says:

    Actually, I often thought when playing Dragon Age and Mass Effect :

    “To really make this experience more compelling, I seriously need to be playing this game from further away and in a lower resolution.”

    • Lilliput King says:

      On several occasions I was in danger of getting too intimate with the games I was playing.

      I’d just like to thank Microsoft and Remedy for helping me to never cross that line again.

    • Surgeon says:

      Anyway, it’s much easier to lick Morrigan’s face during cut scenes when playing on the PC.
      I’d have to get up off the settee and everything if I was playing on the PS3.

  38. sigma83 says:

    Remedy is dead to me.

  39. Jad says:

    Some games are more suited for the intimacy of the PC, and others are best played from the couch in front of a larger TV screen

    The thing is, I hear this argument often in console vs. PC wars, and I don’t understand why people don’t push back on it more often. Because I have to imagine, for a good number of people and a good number of games, this is entirely false.

    I’m not talking about hooking up a PC to a television. I’m talking about the fallacy that “relaxed, on the couch” is actually better for this kind of game.

    I’m thinking back a few years ago when I was living with my parents: my PC was in my room, where I could close the door, pull down the shades, and if need be, put on headphones. The big-screen television was in our well-lit, open-to-the-rest of the house living room, where family members would frequently pass through to get to the kitchen.

    If this statement was about colorful multiplayer stuff like New Super Mario Bros. Wii, or even about singleplayer, cinematic, over-the-shoulder-viewing-friendly fare like Uncharted 2, it would make sense.

    But Alan Wake is a resolutely singleplayer, immersive, psychological thriller/horror game. That sounds exactly like an “intimate” experience. That sounds exactly like something that should be played with the lights out, no distractions, on the edge of your seat, nose pressed up against the screen. The antithesis of a “couch game”.

    And I’ve seen this argument many times with similar games — people saying its no big deal that Bioshock’s PC implementation is flawed, or that Dead Space 2 is console-exclusive. That people don’t like the “isolated”, “anti-social” nature of PC gaming. These ARE isolationist, anti-social games! These are games about being alone, cut off from humanity, utterly immersed in a very bad situation.

    I’m sure there are gamers who live alone, or who have big-screen TV and couch combos in an isolated game room or something. But I’m sure there’s an even larger number of people who have set-ups like the one I described above, where couch gaming implies frequent distractions, a social atmosphere, and a relaxed play-style. Why are such people agreeing that that is the correct way to play a game like Alan Wake?

    • Lars Westergren says:

      Very aptly put, Jad

    • Surgeon says:

      Yep, very well put.
      That’s exactly how I like my gaming.
      Upstairs. Blinds down. Headphones on. In the dark. Massive monitor. Sorted.

      When I’m playing Uncharted 2, and the dog jumps onto my face to be let for a wee, it kind of breaks the immersion.
      And squeeky toys generally don’t fit into the soundtrack very well either.

    • Jad says:

      Thanks for the kind words, guys. Its something that’s been banging around in my head for awhile. A plug, of sorts, I’m going to be posting this rant in somewhat expanded form on my (and my friend’s) gaming blog (click my name).

      Anyway, and this is leading me off-topic, but this also speaks to me about how much the current console generation really seems to screw up the whole “couch gaming” experience.

      A decade ago, when the gap between PC games and console games was much bigger, one of the things I envied most about console games was the prevalence of local, splitscreen multiplayer. I loved the hell out of QuakeWorld online gaming, but I also enjoyed four-player Goldeneye on my friend’s N64. The game was technically inferior (you couldn’t jump or fall!), the controls sucked, and the tiny piece of screen you got on my friend’s TV was much smaller than sitting up close to my monitor, but it was still a lot of fun to play with three other guys in the same room, squashed on the same couch, joking around. Instant LAN gaming.

      Nowadays console games have online gameplay and all of the trappings, but I understand that many don’t include any form of local multiplayer!

      I seriously don’t like the arbitrary PC complex game vs. console simple game argument that too often gets thrown around here. I think a far more useful division is between party-style or non-immersive or short-form or cinematic couch games and singleplayer or immersive or long-form or online chair-desk-room games. Played on either console or PC.

      I’ve played Street Fighter IV on my couch on my PC, and if I owned an Xbox I’d play Dead Space 2 in my room, hooked up to my computer monitor.

      (oh, and devs: many PC gamers have their computers hooked up to their TVs — more splitscreen PC games!)

    • Nalano says:

      You’re absolutely right, of course.

      That said, you’re making the mistake of actually taking their fallacious arguments seriously. Sorta like Democrats, really: They’ll respond to anything with the hopes of besting their opponents in rational debate, no matter how ridiculous the original charges were.

      So this lovely, rational response to a pure cynical money-grab “XBOX IS BETTER” from the company that makes XBox is like how Democrats responded to “HE’S A KENYAN PINKO” by saying, “Well, we actually called Kenya and, besides, we noted these discrepancies in the Kenyan birth certificate you claim as proof…” and thus got punked badly.

  40. Droniac says:

    I didn’t even know it had become impossible to connect your TV to your PC!

    I must be experiencing some sort of critical security leak, because my TV is magically picking up signals from my PC and processing them into pretty colored pixels after plugging in this magic wire called ‘HDMI cable’. Microsoft needs to be informed, this clearly requires an emergency update of all versions of Windows!

    Remedy’s argument in favour of Xbox gaming sounds very plausible. I wouldn’t want to be intimate with my horror games either! It’s much better to experience games like F.E.A.R. 2, AvP or Alan Wake at a safe distance. A distance where you’ll be so busy squinting at the tiny letters on screen (need to keep tabs on health and ammo values) that you don’t even notice half the scares they put into the game! Much healthier gaming!

    • TeeJay says:

      “…I must be experiencing some sort of critical security leak, because my TV is magically picking up signals from my PC…”

      …and I think my PC is a bit of a freak – it lets me go round the back and plug in a gamepad. It even likes it in the front as well! 0_0

      Next someone will find out that developers have sneaked in various settings for things like screen resolution, size of text, number of speakers and the like. Disgusting!

  41. DangerousDan says:

    This is one of the most bullshit decisions I have heard in a long time. Very unhappy. It’s like Heavy Rain all over again.

    What happened to you, Remedy? What happened.

  42. Out Reach says:

    Some £20 notes are more suited for the intimacy of my wallet, and others are best used to buy PC Games. I ultimately realised that the most compelling way to experience the two £20 notes I had saved for “Alan Wake” was inside my wallet, so I focused on making it a my wallet exclusive.

  43. Colej_uk says:

    We should all just hook our PCs up to our TVs, then ask them if we can have it now.

  44. Heliosicle says:

    This hadn’t already happened?

    It was to be expected anyway, lazy Remedy/greedy Microsoft.

  45. nakke says:

    WHAT? REMEDY? NOOoooooooooo…. Nooooooo.

  46. Halka says:

    As long as Valve and Blizzard don’t abandon us …


  47. faelnor says:

    So Alan Wake is a game better enjoyed from the ‘comfort’ of a couch with every friend and their dog passing around while chatting about the latest album they bought, pass me the ashtray, come on stop playing for a while we’ve got to go buy some booze oh sorry I just spilled some coffee over the wiimote don’t forget to go get some booze.

    We’re not missing a lot then. I’ll get intimate with some Thief FMs in the meantime.

  48. terry says:

    It’s not often I verbally utter when looking at pages on the internet, lest other people overhear me and report the angry muttering guy in the back cube, but I genuinely said “You have to be fucking kidding me” in a disgusted, incredulous tone irl just there.

  49. cliffski says:

    I bet this isn’t true.
    they make more money from each copy, and have less piracy on consoles, so they want that version out first. They want all the PC gamers who own a console to get the PC version, rather than wait for a pirated PC copy.
    Once that’s done, they will likely do a ten minute shoddy port to PC to mop up the rest of the cash.

    Its no great loss anyway, the best PC games are PC-only designed to work to the strengths of the platform, not shoddy afterthought ports from inferior machines.
    Good riddance.

    • Lilliput King says:

      Might be that. I’m tempted to think it has more to do with this whole ‘exclusive’ shabang they got going on.

      Isn’t Heavy Rain PS3 exclusive? Maybe this is Microsoft’s answer. Or possibly the studio is somewhat beleaguered after the insanely long development time and need funds to keep afloat. An exclusive deal from Microsoft would secure that, for a while.

      This is all speculation, of course, and I don’t really care enough to research it.

    • Huggster says:

      Exactly what I thought / said just now cliffskiiola

    • Sagan says:

      I bet this is true.

      Fable 2, Gears of War 2, Halo 3. A lot of recent Microsoft games didn’t come to the PC. I don’t even know what has been the last PC game from Microsoft. Certainly nothing in recent years.

    • James G says:

      Yep, dead on the money. To this I’d also add that by making it a 360 exclusive through the initial period of heavy marketing, they also can use it to bolster the 360 ‘brand.’ While MS have done their best to also brand PC gaming they have largely failed, partly due to the fact they mistakenly tired to apply the same tactics which had worked on the 360 to a fundamentally different market.* As a result dual marketing to the 360 and GFW brands will only serve to dilute the 360 marketing.

      Under a standard cycle I might have assumed the initial focus on the 360 was to reduced the increased development time for simultaneously focusing on two platforms. In past years, the eyes would already be on the 360’s successor, and any major releases would get lost in the next gen hype if delayed for too long now. However thanks to the recession and a general slow down in the sheer growth of computing power/requirements it seems this stage is delayed.

      * I’ll avoid conspiracy and assume incompetence over malevolence.